M1871 German Mauser
M1871 Mauser Infantry Rifle (Infanterie-Gewehr M1871)
What we know today as Germany, located in the central heart of Western Europe, has had an almost unbroken history of warfare going back to pre-Christian Roman days. In the first millennium A.D., Charlemagne (Charles the Great) conquered the “heathen” Saxons, converted them to Christianity, surprised attacks on the pope and ruled as the Emperor of all of Western Europe. Over the next 400 years, the area that is now Germany disintegrated into little more than a loose league of princes and nobles generally referred to as the “Holy Roman Empire,” but which in reality had little in common except language. The Protestant reformation, begun by Martin Luther boiled over into religious conflict in 1618, lasting 30 years. Germany was the battlefield between Catholic Austria (often allied with Spain), in its struggle against Protestant Scandinavians and Dutch. This was a devastating conflict that left an estimated half of the population of Germany killed by either war or starvation. This conflict was the beginning of the rise of Prussia and the fabled Prussian army. This army, the best disciplined and capable of Europe in the 1700’s, was built by King Frederick Wilhelm I. His son, Frederick II (Frederick the Great) leading this army during the Seven Years war (1756-1763) resulted in Prussia defeating an alliance made up of France, Sweden, Russia, Saxony and Austria.
Most of the German states, as well as Prussia and Austria became embroiled in the Napoleonic wars following the French Revolution, and for a time Napoleon controlled much of the territory along the Rhine. After Napoleon’s defeat of 1814, Prussia gained control of part of Saxony and lands along the Rhine. The more than 300 independent states and principalities of the old Holy Roman Empire were reduced to 38. At this time a German confederation was established with each German state having its own government and armies, taxes, constitution and laws.
True German unification really first began when King Wilhelm I became king of Prussia in 1861 and chose the brilliant Count Otto Von Bismarck as his prime minister. Bismarck dismissed the Prussian parliament, cancelled the constitution and substantially built up the army. The 1860’s saw Prussia make war with Denmark (The Second Schleswig War of 1864), annex the Danish provinces of Schlesweg and Holstein, crush Austria in the Seven Weeks war of 1866 (taking over Hanover and several smaller north German states), and by 1867 organizing a smaller but much stronger north German confederation without any Austrian ties.
French alarm at this rapid rise of Prussian power was well founded, as Prussia subsequently won an easy victory over France in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870. The result of the Franco-Prussian war was a new German empire (the Second Reich) consisting of the north German confederation and four southern German states, the most significant of which was Bavaria. The next twenty years under the direction of Bismarck were generally a time of growth for Germany, which did not begin to unravel until Wilhelm II, the grandson of Wilhelm I, dismissed Bismarck in 1890, thereby sowing the seeds for Germany’s disastrous experience in WWI.
The I.G. (Infanterie‑Gewehr) Mod. 71 Mauser was the first of what would become literally millions of rifles manufactured to the design of the brothers Paul and Wilhelm Mauser, and the first regulation brass cartridge rifle of the German Imperial Army. Almost every good original feature of the metallic cartridge turning bolt action rifle design was the work of design genius Peter Paul Mauser who systematically developed his basic design over an extended period of time. While the M1871 was loosely based on the bolt action of the Dreyse, its own design was innovative and one of the first successful metallic cartridge, bolt action rifles.
As early as 1867 the Mauser brothers, Peter Paul and Wilhelm Mauser, began working in association with Samuel Norris, the Remington importer for Europe, on the design of a bolt action single-shot rifle for use with a metallic cartridge. The impetus for accelerating development, however, was Prussia’s experience in the Franco-Prussian war in which for the first time Prussia went up against rifles far superior to their Dreyse, including the at the time excellent French Chassepot and the even better various metallic cartridge rifles imported from the United States by the French Nationalists during the war including especially the M1867 Peabodys and the M1868 Egyptian Remingtons.
During 1870‑71, Germany extensively tested many different rifles, with the M1869 Bavarian Werder being the Mauser’s chief competitor. The Mauser was provisionally adopted at the end of 1871 pending the development of an appropriate safety. The now universally recognized "wing" type safety lever on the back of the bolt was developed to fill this requirement and the Mod.71 Mauser was officially adopted by Germany (principally Prussia, the leading German state at the time) in February 1872. This adoption, however, excluded Bavaria which had already adopted the M1869 Werder.
After the Prussian adoption of the Mauser M71 and its superior M71 .43 Mauser (11.15X60R) cartridge, for both better performance and for logistical simplicity Bavaria re-chamberd its Werders to accept the Mauser ammunition. And from 1877, M71 Mauser rifles were also manufactured in Amberg (Bavaria) after conversions of the Bavarian Werders to the M1871 standard were completed. Eventually Bavaria outright replaced its Werder rifles with the M71 Mausers for its front-line infantry, relegating the Werders to rear-echelon troops and to reserve.
The design is a split bridge, single shot, bolt action developed from the experimental Mauser‑Norris of 1868 at the royal Wurttemberg Armory in Oberndorf, and very similar in functioning to the French Chasspot, forerunner of the Mle.1874 French Gras. The Mod.71, the subsequent I.G.Mod.71/84 and all their variations use a two‑piece bolt. The action employs only a bolt guide rib as its single locking lug, locking forward of the receiver bridge. Similar to other of the earliest bolt-action metallic cartridge rifles such as the Russian M1870 Berdan, it has its extractor built into the bolt head, but has no ejector. Spent cases are removed by the motion of tipping the rifle to one side, and a new round manually dropped into the receiver and chambered with the bolt.
In the late 1860s, early 1870s, cartridge case integrity was always suspect, especially when using multi-part cartridge cases as the Germans did initially. Most rifles of this era incorporated some form of gas release channel in the event of a ruptured cartridge case. This might take the form of small holes drilled into the top of the chamber, as with the M1869 & 1871 Swiss Vetterli, cuts into the receiver adjacent to the barrel such as the M1868 Spanish Remington, or, in the case of the M71 Mauser, a channel cut into the base of the receiver at the chamber mouth coupled with a "waist" around the bolt head allowing gases from a ruptured cartridge to escape up and away from the shooter's face.
This exact system must have impressed the French as they adopted this system themselves for the M. 80 version of the M1874 M.80 French Gras upgrades.
The Mod.71 Mauser is a rather plain and conventional looking bolt action single shot chambered in typical 11 millimeter. Perhaps as a result of its heritage from the earlier and quite successful Dreyse needle-fire rifle, the M71 is both large and heavy. It has two barrel bands and a nosecap with the cleaning rod conventionally located in a channel along the bottom of the forestock. Sling swivels lay under the middle band and at the front of the trigger guard. The bolt is retained by a screw-mounted stop washer mounted on the top of the bolt ahead of the handle which fits into a matching semi-circular cutout on the top of the receiver bridge. The bolt is removed by the simple expedient of lifting or removing the retainer washer.
Two features are worth noting: The rear sight is substantial by 1871 standards, and its base is a near half-cylinder soldered to the barrel. The other characteristic feature, which is quintessentially Mauser, is the wing type safety lever at the rear of the bolt.
The barrels were finished browned, trigger guard finished either in iron in the white or in brass, receiver and bolt in natural white, the buttplate in unfinished steel.
The trigger guard of the M71 is almost always brass, but we have examined examples with both brass trigger guards and with steel trigger guards. We don’t know why the differences.
The left rear of the receiver is marked I.G. Mod. 71. (Infanterie Gewehr Model 1871) in Gothic script. There is a Monarch's Cypher on the upper left chamber flat and multiple parts such as the flat of the bolt handle which could be F.W. (Fredrik Wilhelm of Prussia), Crown over L. for King Ludwig II of Bavarian, or W. (for the Wurttemberg Kingdom). The manufactory is marked on the top chamber flat. The most common varieties seem to be those manufactured in and marked "Spandau" and "Amberg" but no fewer than nine(!) armories and arms factories built the M71 during its production life.
The Germans were a bit compulsive about unit marking their rifles, thus the Mauser M71s (as will also be true of the follow-on M71/84s) usually have full regimental codes and weapon numbers marked on the top of the buttplate tang. But note that regimental markings on the bottom of the buttplate, as well as no such markings at all, are not uncommon.
Interestingly, Model 1871 Mausers are usually marked with the rifle’s actual bore diameter in millimeters stamped on the left chamber flat just ahead of the receiver, and is generally anywhere from 10.95 to 11.05mm. The right forward chamber flats are usually profusely marked with the markings of German proof testing.
The 11.1 shown here on its side is the rifle's caliber in millimeters. 11.0 is the M71’s nominal caliber, the same as the later Mod. 71/84 Mauser’s. The groove depth of the latter rifle however is only ½ that of the M1871. Ammo is interchangeable, but accuracy suffers shooting later ammo in the earlier deep-groove Mod. 71.
The M71 Mauser was adopted at a time when not much was known about the effects of barrel harmonics on bullet flight and accuracy. Although the M71 was overall quite competitive as a front line infantry weapon, its accuracy was never as good as had been hoped. This ultimately was traced to the arrangement and placement of its combination front barrel band-nosecap locking into the barrel lug beneath the nosecap.
Some of the literature indicates that after 1882 an ejector was added, that a hardened insert was pinned into the rear of the bolt guide rib and that a retaining pin was added to the bolt stop screw. An examination of an 1883 M71 further marked 1887 did not have these features, although the ejector and bolt stop screw retaining pin are standard features of the M1871/84.
The M1871 Mauser was the first European military rifle to benefit from being manufactured using the “American System” which entailed production on an assembly line using interchangeable parts. But to ensure that parts remained with the rifles with which they were assembled to avoid fitment issues, practically every single part of the each rifle was serially numbered to the rifle; right down to each screw! The army and the builders were not messing around!
Production of the M71 to supply the new German Confederation, de facto headed by Prussia’s Otto von Bismark who unified Germany was extensive and widespread.
Peter & Wilhelm Mauser’s private company, Gebr. Mauser & Co., in Oberndorf, in the Austrian state of Salzburg, built roughly 100,000 rifles and carbines between 1873 and 1884, for the Kingdom of Württemberg.
The German state armories in the cities of Amberg in Bavaria, Danzig, now in Poland but at the time part of Prussia, Erfurt in Thuringia and Spandau, just outside of Berlin, were responsible for the bulk of production between 1872 and 1884, when production shifted to the updated M71/84 tube-magazine repeater.
Rifles produced at the Amberg factory in Bavaria for the Bavarian government are marked on the top chamber flat with a crown over “Amberg” and with a crown over “L” on the upper left chamber flat, denoting King Ludwig II of Bavaria (who reigned 1864-1886). Like all M71 Mausers, the date of manufacture is on the right rear chamber flat
Some 300,000 were made by the königlich Gewehrfabrik in Spandau.
The Österreichischen Waffenfabriks-Gesellschaft in Steyr, Austria (Austrian Arms Factory Society OEWG, which also produced the M1867 Austrian Werndl and would become simply Steyr) produced some 350,000 for Prussia and 125,000 for Saxony between 1873 and 1878. The M71s built by OEWG are marked on the top chamber flat Öesterr. Waffeb. Ges. and the king’s cypher, a crown over the initials “FW” on the left chamber flat.
In addition to Mauser other private companies were contracted to produce the rifles, including an order of 180,000 from Productionsgenossenschaft Spangenberg, Sauer, Schilling and Haenel in Suhl (‘Production Consortium’ of Spangenberg, Sauer, Schilling and Haenel) which manufactured the M71 between 1876 and 1882.
And as far afield as England, the National Arms & Ammunitions Co., Ltd., in Birmingham was also contracted to manufacture the M71. While an order for 75,000 rifles was placed, the order was canceled and it is estimated that only approximately 6,000 were delivered between 1876 and 1878. NA&A rifles are marked “N. A. & A. Co.” within a triangle.
It is estimated that more than 1.8 million M71 Mausers, including rifles, some numbers of Jäger (hunter) short rifles (Jägerbüchse) and 80,000–100,000 carbines for cavalry and auxiliary troops had been built and had gone out into the field. Mauser M71 production continued at some facilities until into 1884 when the state armories prepared for switching over to the M71’s follow-on, the M1871/84 Mauser repeatergewehr.
SPECIFICATIONS, STATISTICS & DATA (I.G. Mod.71)
Overall Length: 53 in (1,344mm)
Barrel Length: 33 5/8 in (855mm)
Weight, empty: 10.1 lbs (4.6kg)
Rifling: 4-groove, right concentric
Sight: Two part – 400 m (435 yds) zero small flip-up leaf and a large leaf with
graduated from 500 m to 1,600 m (547 to 1,750 yds).
Cartridge: 11.15x60R (aka .43 Mauser)
The success of the Mauser M71 spawned several notable customized variants purchased from Mauser by other nations, including the Serbian M1878/80 Mauser-Milovanovic and the M1880/87 Mauser-Milovanovic both in 10.15x63R and the M1887 Turkish Mauser in 9.5x60R.
The Mauser action would go on to be utilized in the 8mm Portuguese M1886 Mauser-Kropatschek and many dozens of smokeless powder Mauser military rifles from the end of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century.
SHORT RIFLES, CARBINES & SPECIAL VERSIONS
Model 1871 Hunter Short Rifle (Jägerbüchse M1871)
Photo credit:Armémuseum (The Swedish Army Museum) (http://www.digitaltmuseum.se)
Adopted on 18th January 1876, this was somewhat similar to the infantry rifle. However, the Jägerbüchse has only a single barrel band which carries the upper sling swivel, the trigger guard extends into a spurred finger rest, and the rear sling swivel is fitted beneath the butt rather than mounted on the front of the trigger guard as does that of the infantry rifle. The Jägerbüchse mounts the standard M1871 Mauser bayonet on a lug fitted to the right side of the nosecap, in a manner quite similar to that of the M1878 Swiss Vetterli. In 1882, changes were made to the rear sight, the bolt-guide rib and the bolt-stop.
Note that the finger rest was fitted mostly for internal army “political” reasons as traditionally the Jäger and Schützen units had historically been equipped with their own, distinctive long arms.
While the M71 infantry rifles were removed from front-line service as soon as M71/84 rifles became available (and even these did not stay in service very long once smokeless powder came on the scene in 1886), the Jägerbüchse M71s remained in service with the German Gendarmen (police) as well as overseas with the Schütz-truppe units in German African colonial service to the 20th century.
Photo credit: C&Rsenal
Model 1871 Short Rifle (Jägerbüchse M1871)
Specifications & Statistics for the Model 1871 Short Rifle
Overall Length: 48.7 in (1,240mm)
Barrel Length: 29 3/8 in (747mm)
Weight, empty: 9 lbs (4.2kg)
Rifling: 4-groove, right concentric
Rear Sight: 200 m, 300m small leaf, to 1,600m with ladder up
Note that infantry rifle versions produced for Jäger battalions were also built. These are marked “J.G.” 71, (Jägergewehr) but these infantry rifles in all dimentions and features and are not the Jägerbüchse version.
Model 1871 Carbine (Karabiner M1871; K Mod.71)
Model 1871 Carbine (Karabiner M1871; K Mod.71)
In August of 1876 the Karabiner M1871 approved for production to be issued to dragoons, hussars and lancers. Prior to this time the Germans had adapted some of the large numbers of captured French Chassepot rifles acquired by the Prussians in the Franco-Prussian War which they had shortened into carbines altered to fire self-contained metallic cartridges (the alteration for metallic cartridge closely matching that of the French M1874 Gras rifles).
The new Mauser-designed carbine had a single spring-retained barrel band; a full-length stock terminating in a nose cap just shy of the muzzle. Its action had a turned-down bolt handle; and it was fitted with a typically small rear sight. Sling swivels were mounted under its barrel band and near the foot of the butt. Some versions have a unique sling ring beneath the barrel band rather than a more rectangular strap-type sling swivel. The M1871 carbine has no integral cleaning rod
Prussian carbines were made in Steyr and, independent of the Productionsgenossenschaft, the firm of Spangenberg & Sons in Suhl also produced carbines. Carbines for Württemberg came directly from Mauser. No bayonets were produced for use with the carbine K Mod.71.
A Mauser K Mod.71 produced by Gebr. Mauser & Co.
Specifications & Statistics for the Model 1871 Carbine
Overall Length: 39 3/8 in (998mm)
Barrel Length: 20 3/16 in (513mm)
Weight, empty: 7.3 lbs (3.3kg)
Rifling: 4-groove, right concentric
Rear Sight: 200 m, 300m small leaf, to 1,300m with ladder up
Production: 80,000 to 100,000
M1879 Grenz-Aufseher-Gewehr (G.A.G. M1879)
The M1879 Grenz-Aufseher-Gewehr, was manufactured independently by one of the Productionsgenossenschaft syndicate members, Haenel, in Shul, for the customs/border guard service and issued to the border guards in 1880. Similarly to the K Mod.71 Carbine, the M1879 was fully stocked to the muzzle but it was also fitted with a short stud on the nosecap that extends to the muzzle. It carries a cleaning rod fitted beneath the forestock that extends all the way to the muzzle. Unique to this Mauser series, its upper band is mounted via a transverse screw the runs through the forestock roughly half-way to the muzzle. Total production was only in the range of 2,500 to 3,000.
This short rifle was chambered to fire a unique 11.15×37.5R cartridge, a trimmed down version of the full-power military cartridge.
Photos from Robert W.D.Ball, Mauser Military rifles of the World, 4th Ed., Gun digest, 2006.
Specifications & Statistics for the M1879 Grenz-Aufseher-Gewehr
Overall Length: 44 5/8 in in (1,134mm)
Barrel Length: 24 ¾ in (628mm)
Weight, empty: 7 lbs (3.2 kg)
Rifling: 4-groove, right concentric
Rear Sight: a very simple short-range double folding leaf
CARTRIDGE: 11.15x37.5(!) About half the length of the standard infantry rifle cartridge.
M1871 sword bayonet
The standard issue bayonet approved with the I.G. Mod. 71 was a brass-handled, steel guard, straight-blade sword bayonet, which may have been influenced by the widely-copied French M1866 yatagan bayonet as most countries with large armies to equip seem to have been tending toward the much less expensive socket bayonet.
The Germans also issued a saw backed bayonet that is nearly identical to the standard M1871 sword bayonet except for its wood cutting serrations along its upper side. These were issued primarily to NCOs, but even then in relatively small numbers (6% of German infantry regiments).
Reichspatrone M1871 (aka: 11mm Mauser, 11.15x60R, 11x60R M71 Mauser)
Keen observers will note that the left cartridge is headstamped “43M” (Mauser) below “Dominion” which is a Canadian cartridge manufacturer who produced selected black powder military cartridges until at least well into the 1950s. The middle and right cartridges are correct, original, period made M71/84 and M71 Mauser cartridges.
These wonderful M71era German cartridge pouches and the story behind them can be found at: https://www.collectorsweekly.com/stories/114591-german-1871-mauser-ammo-and-cartridge-pouch
SPECIFICS & DIMENSIONS:
Case: Originally a two-part tube w/separate head (base); after 1876 cases were one-piece, drawn brass.
Bullet: Round-nosed, paper-patched, lead bullet of 385 grains (25 grams)
Load: 5 grams (77 Grains) of black powder
Primer: 6.5mm Berdan
Performance: 1,410-1,440 fps (430m/s)
Bullet diameter: .446 in (11.17mm)
Neck diameter: .465 in (11.80mm)
Base diameter: .566 in (13.10mm)
Rim diameter: .536 in (15.94mm_
Case length: 2.37 in (60.2mm)
Total length: 3.00 in (78.6mm)
Total weight: (40.8 grams)
This information is historical. If reloading, do not use this data, use modern sources of reloading data only.
UTILIZATION BY OTHER COUNTRIES
The M71 was used primarily by the new united Germany under Bismarck and remained in service until adoption of the M71/84, a tube magazine repeater evolution of the M71. But even before its well-deserved retirement the M71 was getting attention around the world.
After it’s withdrawal from service large numbers of M71s were sold around the world through famous arms dealers such as Adolph Frank of Hamburg, Germany and Francis Bannerman of New York.
The African Colonies
Circa 1903, surplus M1871 Mauser 11mm rifles were purchased, cut down and rebarreled to 8x60R black powder short carbines for use by native constabulary in the African colonies. These were in addition to the Jägerbüchse M1871s which also served in that role. In the German African colonies there were large stocks of black powder ammunition on hand for these and also existing obsolete M1866 Sniders in service. The Germans also used the M71 in its original 11mm configuration to arm its African troops through WWI.
Transvaal (South African Republic / ZAR)
Walter suggest that quantities of M71 Mausers may have been acquired by the Transvaal prior to the First Boer War, but we have been unable to confirm or to find additional information.
The Mauser Company received an order for 26,000 M71 rifles for the Chinese Empire in 1875, although Walter suggests that the order may have been filled by OEWG which sold substantial numbers of M71s across the world. Markings for these rifles are unknown but may have consisted of only the manufacturer’s markings, and would be unlikely to carry royal cyphers or other such indications. Regardless, the M71 was so well regarded in China that 70,000 OEWG-built Mod.71 rifles were also sold to China in the 1880’s. The M71 proved popular enough that following its withdrawn from European service large numbers of otherwise obsolete Mauser M71s and M71/84s were also later purchased via large arms dealers. (Note that such rifles would in fact have originally been produced for Germany and would carry German cyphers and all related markings.
Japan and Korea
Immediately subsequent to the 1868 Meiji Restoration japan embarked on a massive, society-wide modernization in a frantic effort to catch up with the West in all things, but most especially arms. They imported large quantities of then-modern rifles to assess and consider in the eventual design of their first locally produced infantry rifle, the Year 13 Murata. Among those imports were substantial numbers of OEWG manufactured M1871 Mausers. Many if not most such imported rifles carry various small Japanese markings including some which are stamped with the Japanese royal chrysanthemum, but we don’t know if these rifles were marked in any such way.
Korea in the late 19th Century was substantially dominated by Chinese and Japanese influence. The Korean government had been armed with M1871 Mausers but ammunition was in short supply. To put down the Donghak Peasant Revolt of 1894 the unpopular Korean government asked the Chinese for help which sent in 2,700 Chinese troops. This angered the Japanese who initiated the first Sino-Japanese War over this incursion. Although we have not been able to determine the numbers of M71 rifles in Korea, Japanese documents refer to the rifles arming 5 battalions of Korean government troops with the rifles, which could range from 1,500 to 5,000 soldiers.
Siam, modern day Thailand, acquired a substantial number of obsolete black powder cartridge arms at the end of the 19th – beginning of the 20th centuries. Most such acquired arms still bear the markings of their previous service, but in addition most also are marked either on the top of the receiver ring or chamber flat with the Siamese Chakra, and may also bear additional Sanskrit markings.
Smaller quantities also found their way to South America.
After Prussia and the German states had rung up a string of military victories against powerful European states Denmark (1864), Austria (1866) and then France (1871), many South American countries looked to the German Empire for both military guidance via German military advisors and military hardware, including rifles and bayonets. Argentina procured a number of model types (Albini, Enfield, Berdan, Springfield, Whitney, Werndl) for extensive testing, but without making any of them the standard rifle. Some 500 M71s apparently were captured from Brazil as well. They did however buy limited quantities of M71 Mausers, even though they would ultimately settle on the Remington in order to standardize both arms and ammunition.
The buttstock of this M71 Mauser is engraved with what is clearly the “EN” (Ejército Nationale; National Army) of the Argentine Army. Photo from: https://worldbayonets.com/Researching_Your_Finds/M1871_Rifle_Story/m1871_mauser_rifle.html which provides interesting additional information.
Uruguayan M1871 Mauser rifles should be marked “Republica Oriental” as were other Uruguayan rifles of the era such as the Belgian-made M1870 Uruguayan Remington Short Rifles. I have been unable to confirm whether 11mm Mausers were ever actually put into service by Uruguay, however M1871 rifles that have been rebarreled to the smokeless 6.5x53 Daudetau cartridge were certainly provided to Uruguay, and are marked Société Francais des Armes Portative de St. Denis, Paris, the marking being a S.F.A.P. over St. Denis on the receiver ring above the chamber.
Honduras may also have utilized the M71s, but if so, then in very small quantities and distinguishing characteristics are currently unknown.
The last significant military role played by the M1871 Mauser occurred when Irish Republicans smuggled into Ireland roughly 1,500 single-shot 1871 Mausers via the port of Howth in 1914 for the Irish Volunteers (the Irish nationalist militia) along with smaller quantities of the Italian M1870/87 Vetterli-Vitalis.
These were used in action by the Volunteers in the Easter Rising of 1916, the insurrection aimed at ending British rule in Ireland. This was the opening of the Irish War of Independence ultimately resulting in the Irish free state (Eire) gaining its independence in 1922. Since then the M1871 Mauser became known in Ireland as the "Howth Mauser".
Page first built: February 3, 1999
Revised September 21, 1999
Corrected January 6, 2001
Updated: Oct 29, 2021
Updated: Fe 13, 2022