The mere 23 years between 1865, when the development of the dependable metallic cartridge case finally allowed military breech-loaders to seal in a practical manner, and about 1888, when most European nations were adopting "smokeless" powder, sub-calibre (that is, 8 mm!) ammunition, was a dramatic age of innovation and transition for the small arms of the world's military forces.   At that time, there was no consensus regarding the rifle of the future, especially what kind of action would emerge as the dominant form, which had been the cap lock's for nearly the previous century.  Indeed, during this turbulent period, there were no fewer than two dozen distinctly different rifle action types (and a great many lesser variants) adopted by front line armies and gendarmes throughout the world; not experimentally, but readied for war.  Europe, Central America, South America and Japan were political cauldrons during this era, with imperialistic rivalries at home and around the globe, and bona fide arms races engaged in by virtually every government on the continent.  It was a time of turmoil, and, of course, a time of wonderful, creative innovation!

General Information and Links Regarding Certain Selected Rifle Action Types

Main Rifles Index / By Country:

Below are photo identification and historical information pages on the rifles that fall within the "Age of Transition"
(~1865 to ~1888; my personal "universe"),  to which this site is dedicated:

 
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Argentina

M1866/71 Remington (11.15x587R)

- Photos and Info needed

 M1874 Remington (11.15x58R)

 - Photos and Info needed

 
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Australia

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Austria

 

Updated (01/22/22)

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Bavaria

- Photos and Info needed

 

M1858/67 Podewils (13.9mm Bavarian)        

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Belguim

 

Updated (01/14/22)

Updated (01/14/22)

M1870 Belgian Comblain - Guard Civique (11x50R)

 
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Brazil

 
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Britain

M1891 Martini-Metford (Mark II)  (.303 British)

- Photos and Info needed

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Bulgaria

 
 
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Canada

M186__ Spencer (.56-50R) RF

M188__ Martini Metford (.303 British)

 
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Chile

 
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China

M1879 Winchester Hotchkiss (.45-70 Govt)

M1882 Remington-Lee (.45-70 Govt &  maybe .43 Spanish)

 
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Denmark

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Egypt

 
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France

 

French-Imported Rifles of the Franco-Prussian War:

 
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Germany (Prussia)

 
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Greece

 
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Italy

 
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Japan

 
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Luxembourg

M1860/66 Snider (.577 Snider)

 
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Mexico

 
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Montengro

M186?  Krnka (??x??R)

 
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Morocco

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Nepal

 
 
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Netherlands

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New Zealand

 
 
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Norway

M1855/67 & M1860-67 Lund (12.7x44R) RF (army conversion)

M1855/67, M1859/67 etc Landmark  (16.8x32R) RF (navy conversion)

 
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Papal States

 
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Persia

M18__ Comblain

 
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Peru

M187_ Comblain

M1882(?) Remington Lee (.43 Spanish)

 
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Portugal

 
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Romania

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Russia

 

- Photos and Info needed

 
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Siam

M1853?/67 Tabatiere (17.8x32-38R)

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Serbia

 

- Photos and Info needed

M1871 Peabody (15.5x35R) CF  

M187_ Peabody-Roberts     

- Photos and Info needed

M1880/87 Mauser-Milovanovic (10.15x63R)

 
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South Africa

Boer Rifles of the 2nd Boer War (1889-1902)

 
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Spain

M1870 Remington (11.15x58R)

M1871 Royal Bodyguard Rifle (11.15x58R)   

 
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Sweden

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Switzerland

 
 
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Turkey

 
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Uruguay

 
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United State of America

End of Rifles Indexes

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All photos and printed materials on this website are Copyright 1997-2022 Keith Doyon & Josh Underkofler OR owned by the respective contributors, and may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in whole or in part or by any means, electronic or mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the permission of the author which is hereby granted upon the conditions above. Please copy this paragraph to act as your permission to use, along with a copy of your e-mail notification to me of your use.