M189__(?) Nepalese Gehendra:

GENERALLY:  This page, I am embarassed to say, should have been updated quite some time ago.  I hope to remedy that situation now.
This page previously stated:  "This rifle is one of the most intriguing and enigmatic rifles in this era of Black Powder Cartridge Military Rifles."  That enigma has, in large measure, been resolved by the making public of the large horde of 19th century rifles, armaments and acoutrements contained in the Royal Nepalese arsenal at Lagan Silekhana.  I would imagine that by now anyone seriously interested in this rifle would have come across this information.  Nonetheless, I suggest the following posts to get up to speed:


Firstly, note that while this rifle does in fact derive from the Peabody dropping block action as seen in various Peabody-Martinis such as the Turkish Peabody-Martini, is clearly NOT any kind of Martinil. The Martini improvement was a self-cocking action containing a coil-spring powered striker/firing pin. The Nepalese, almost exactly like the Peabody with Wessley Improvement, contains a flat spring powered hammer that cocks back and pivots forward through a hollow within the breech block, the hammer face having an integral cone shaped firing pin that strikes the cartridge primer through a hole in the breech block.  It also strongly resembles early Westley Richards designs, such as reportedly used at the Wimbledon trials of 1870.  But the rifle, being made at a time and place of strong British Martini-Henry influence, is rifled with Henry rifling!  While it seems that "Gehendra" is a fitting name for this rifle, and it certainly seems that the name is going to stick, following a more general British nomenclature should actually give us the "Peabody-Gehendra-Henry."   :)

Manufacturing is good, clearly arsenal or factory produced, and nearly all parts, including the small internal action parts, are serially numbered to the arm. Two barrel bands and nosecap are close matches for the British Martini-Henry. The buttstock, however, in a departure from the pattern of this rifle and quite unlike the both the Peabody and the Martini-Henry, is affixed not with a through-bolt but rather with conventional screwed upper and lower receiver tangs.

Walter reports that in an 1870 Peabody advertising broadsheet, Providence Tool Company claims to be making the "standard" Peabody rifle (i.e., side hammer) in several models and also offers the "... Peabody-Wessely, a self-cocking design with an internal hammer." (page 210).  A. Ritter von Wessely obtained a patent on his Peabody improvement in 1869 and this rifle bears striking resemblences to that patent.

Walter, in Guns of the Gurkhas (see below) suggests that the genesis of the Gehendra could have been a Westley-Richards rifle circa 1869.  The similaraties are too striking to ignore.

PHOTO:  The rifle shown is a Nepalese military issue "Gehendra."    It is chambered for the .577-450 cartridege, rifled with Henry rifling, and profusely marked in Nepalese.

DISTINGUISHING CHARECTERISTICS: Huge Peabody-Martini-Henry type of receiver can easily confuse one into thinking that this is a Martini variant.  It's not.  However, it absolutely is a Peabody variant. The rifle does look a lot at first like a Martini-Henry Mark I, but is convered in Nepalese script. The operating lever, like early Westley-Richards rifles and similar to the Portugese Guedes used by South Africa (Z.A.R.), also forms the trigger guard and pivots on a pin in front of the trigger. It is distinctive in also having a tail which is curved in on itself forming an elongated loop. The lower band swivel is most inconveniently mounted ahead of the trigger but inside the operating lever-trigger guard and is prone to interferring with the operation of the lever. Martini type sights (or Greneer shotgun type fixed for the smooth-bores) and no bayonet stud.  Rifled with Henry rifling.

MISC NOTES:  These guns are also sometimes encountered in .577-470 India Police, which is the smooth-bore, ball version of the rifle with fixed sights. The guns are conversions from the rifles as their markings are identical with the rifles and in the same serial number range, and tooling marks would indicate that they were not manufactured originally as smooth-bores.

More Notes:  Be wary of the dates on this arm. The Nepalese calendar is 57 years different from the "standard" western calander so dates likely do not correspond!

MORE SPECIAL NOTES:  (Previous, and now obsolete notes:   "I have located or seen 8 of these rifles (one rifle converted to .577-470 India Police, one cut to carbine length).  All have 2  digit serial numbers except two with 3 digits.  All carry different serial numbers.  I have not seen any rifle with a 4 diget serial number.  My presumption is that fewer than 1,000 of these clearly military issued rifles were ever produced.  Perhaps only a few hundred.)

Walter, in Guns of the Gurkhas (see below) quotes a letter dated July 1906 in which the writer states, in part, "... The total number of rifles of this pattern [Gehendra] now in the possession of the State [Nepal] amounts to 8,983."     Still quite a bit fewer than the Million or so Martini-Henry's produced!!

Yet more special notes:   This from an alert reader!
From another wonderful correspondent:

Subj:  British Blackpowder Military Rifles
Date: 99-09-16 08:23:48 EDT
From: johnbaines@postmaster.co.uk (John Baines)
To: KeithDoyon@MilitaryRifles(.)com
Dear Keith ,

Re the Nepal Rifle:
It is most likely to be a derivative of the 1869 trials rifle submitted by Westley Richards, as like that rifle it has a hammer, flat mainspring and from the looks of your photograph a loading lever which pivots forward of the trigger guard, and is offset to the right from the trigger guard at its rearmost extremity. This rifle failed to win the contract for Westley Richards despite it winning much  praise for it simpler (only 16? moving parts) action compared to that of Martini. Needless to say Westley Richards was not happy at the decision, and, when the Martini finally went ino service, began marketing his rifle, under the name the 'Westley Richards Improved Martini' to various overseas governments.  It was I believe made in three models with the flat main spring either forward or to the rear of the hammer.  I have two examples of this rifle & will photograph them both, and send you copies together with the 1869 drawings so that you can compare them for yourself.

Best Regards
And recently this letter:
Subj:  Nepalese Peabody-Wessley-Henry/Westley Richards
Date: 00-02-06 15:53:24 EST
From: fzulps@swbell.net (John T. Thorne)
Reply-to: fzulps@swbell.net
To: KeithDoyon@MilitaryRifles(.)com

In 1998, I saw two of these mounted in the commander's office at the Nepali Army Post located on the Bhote Koshi River in far northern Nepal, just south of the Tibetan border. I wondered what they were at the time. Somewhere, I have a photo and if I can find it I'll send it along. The major in charge told me that they were used in the Tibet-Nepal War of 1897-98, which was fought primarily in that area. By the way, his troops were armed primarily with SMLEs.
John Thorne

Note:  I am still unclear as to the dates of manufacture of these rifles.

 Date: 02-02-12 14:05:32 EST
 From: vhelden@home.nl
 To: KeithDoyon@MilitaryRifles(.)com


 I was just reading an old sales list from a British gundealer and found some intresting information about the rifle you discripted as Nepalese Martini-Wessley improved Westley Richards.  There is no picture of the rifle but I'am sure it's that type of rifle.   I will give you the complete discription as in the advertisement.

" - An intresting .577-450 Tranters Patent Martini rifle made for the Kingdom of Nepal, 33" brl. Henry rifled, ladder rearsight, 2 piece walnut stock, iron mounts.  The rifle resembles the service M/H rifle, but features a cocking lever hinged in front of the trigger and is curved in such a way as to also form the triggerguard.  The action is driven by a V-spring unlike the coil spring of the M/H. A new innovation in gunmaking which was distrusted by many in the trade.

 Tranters patents relating to this design are 3622 of 1868 and 3557 of 1869.

 This rifle has numerous Nepalese markings on the butt, action and triggerguard. It was most probably made in the Nepal Armouries C1870/1880's to a high standard for issue to the King's Guard.  Rifles of this pattern were bought out of Nepal together with a large quantity of M/H MKIV in the 1960's by Interarms.  It is doubtful if more than 500 were made."

J v Helden


These two books discuss the Gehendra, the first in nice detail:

Guns of the Gurkhas, John Walter, Tharston Press, Surrey, England, 2005.

Treasure is where you find it:  The thirty Year quest to save the Royal Armoury of Nepal, Christian Cranmer, Tharston Press, Surrey, England, 2004.

See also:


Image above courtesy of Jean Plamondon


The muzzle end of the Nepalese Gehendra bears striking similarities to the British Martini-Henry.  Note unique rod.

Left side of a good example of the Nepalese Gehendra.  Note that the operating lever is held up against the rifle SOLEY by the pair of little clips at the very lower front of the buttstock.  Absent the "clipping" action, the operating lever simply falls.  Also, without a sling, the lower sling swivel falls vertically jamming the operating lever.  Intriguing, but not the best design.

Another view of the left side receiver of the Nepalese Gehendra.  It's a BIG action necessitating big hands to hold well.

Photos of Exterior Charecteristics

Photos of Receiver & Exploded Action
              With further link to extensive "Westley Richards Improved Martini" pics



Page built June 9, 1997
updated January 24, 29, 1999
Revised September 26, 1999
Revised February 13, 2000
Revised February 12, 2002
Revised April 30, 2007